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cases


CASE STUDIES

We are comparing the two cases of Heliópolis and Jardim São Francisco, communities that have been successively upgraded by identical approaches since the 1980s.

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cases


CASE STUDIES

We are comparing the two cases of Heliópolis and Jardim São Francisco, communities that have been successively upgraded by identical approaches since the 1980s.

Heliópolis. Photo by Gil UNAS.

Heliópolis. Photo by Gil UNAS.

SP MAP


There are approximately 60,000 inhabitants of Heliópolis, and 40,000 who live in Jardim São Francisco.     

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SP MAP


There are approximately 60,000 inhabitants of Heliópolis, and 40,000 who live in Jardim São Francisco.     

 

São Paulo, BraSil

This map relates informal settlements, redevelopment, and the case studies.

 

Development Types


We are analyzing the impacts of successive development through a combined post-occupancy analysis and survey questionnaire in 1,100 households across two communities. 

 

Heliopolis and São Francisco share a common historical trajectory, but feature highly heterogeneous morphologies and demographics.

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Development Types


We are analyzing the impacts of successive development through a combined post-occupancy analysis and survey questionnaire in 1,100 households across two communities. 

 

Heliopolis and São Francisco share a common historical trajectory, but feature highly heterogeneous morphologies and demographics.

The São frANCISCO Community

sao francisco


Amid morphological heterogeneity, there are four common housing redevelopment approaches that have been implemented since the 1980s: (1) Self-building; (2) Assisted Self-Building; (3) Cingapura-Prover; and (4) Urbanization of Favelas.

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sao francisco


Amid morphological heterogeneity, there are four common housing redevelopment approaches that have been implemented since the 1980s: (1) Self-building; (2) Assisted Self-Building; (3) Cingapura-Prover; and (4) Urbanization of Favelas.

 

The HELIÓPOLIS + São Francisco CommunitIES

Development Types


While much is known about singular redevelopment approaches, less is understood about their nexus in particular communities.  

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Development Types


While much is known about singular redevelopment approaches, less is understood about their nexus in particular communities.  

Self-building (Autoconstrução) in São Francisco.

Self-building (Autoconstrução) in São Francisco.

Assisted Self-building (Mutirão) in São Francisco.

Assisted Self-building (Mutirão) in São Francisco.

 

Self building (autoconstrução) and assisted self-building (mutirão) types 

Like many countries across Latin America, from the mid 1970s onward Brazil adopted second generation policies that support self-building - either directly through assisted self-help policies, or indirectly by failing to provide low-income housing. Unassisted self-building resulted in two types of informal settlement, loteamentos and favelas - the hybridization of which can be seen in the image to the left.

Assisted self-building or "self-help" entailed policies that provided individuals, organized groups, and community associations with a lot and either building materials or a "core" or "half house" which the user evolved as resources permitted. Between 1975 and 1992, approximately 220,000 houses were constructed through assisted self-building policies.  We are analyzing the physical evolution of homes according to social experience through lot and block level digital modeling. 

 

Cingapura - Prover in São Francisco.

Cingapura - Prover in São Francisco.

Urbanization of Favelas in Heliópolis

Urbanization of Favelas in Heliópolis

 

MULTIFAMILY DENSIFICATION STRATEGIES

The departure from policies through which self-building proliferated led to housing densification projects within existing informal settlements. While these approaches provide needed housing and theoretically maintain social ties, the growing scarcity and expense of land invariably leads to removal and displacement. As arguably the most critical development impact, displacement is an issue our study focuses upon by tracking how displaced families have fared over the past twenty-five years.